Reinforced concrete

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Reinforced concrete is the type of concrete most commonly used in modern structural construction. It consists of iron or mild steel reinforcing bars, formed into shapes and lashed together using steel or iron wire, with concrete poured over the resulting reinforcement and consolidated to drive out air voids using mechanical agitation including push rods and vibration. A temporary mold, often made from wood or steel structure, surrounds the metal mesh and concrete to form the shape while the concrete sets.

While concrete without reinforcement is very strong in compression (pushing), it's very weak in tension (pulling) and torsion (twisting). The reinforcement adds strength in tension and torsion and does so in a way that's greater than the sum of the parts. The reinforcement improves the performance of the concrete, and the concrete improves the performance of the reinforcement, in a synergistic way.

A common failure mode with ferrocement is for the metal reinforcement to corrode, for example due to rainwater or seawater intrusion. Attempts to mitigate the corrosion by placing plastic coatings over the metal have not been not fully successful as water can migrate between the plastic and metal and still corrode the metal. Structures made from metal reinforced concrete have failed due to corrosion of the metal reinforcement.

One way to solve this problem is to use non-metallic reinforcement, in particular using materials that are strong in tension and highly resistant to corrosion such as plastics or mineral fibers. For example, glass, basalt and various plastic fibers have been tried. Glass and basalt are minerals and essentially don't corrode. if the reinforcement doesn't corrode, the resulting reinforced concrete structure can be far more durable.